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通知在国际贸易中的重要作用(附英文版)
来源:法妞问答 时间:2019年10月09日 有法律问题怎么办?找专业律师来帮忙!点击发布咨询
“通知”在国际贸易中的重要作用在现代国际贸易中,很多商业决策需要以通知方式告知交易对方。以正确的方式通知交易对方,不仅体现了企业良好的商业信誉,更直接决定企业将要承担的法律责任。鉴于多国均为《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》的缔约国,本文以该公约为法律依据阐述各个话题。一、正确的通知1.形式:书面及口头均可,从证据角度看,书面更好的证明通知实际发生。2.内容:明确、清楚地表达通知的内容,列如:“从你司购买的设备被A公司提出侵犯其专利权”、“我司已于今日货交A物流公司,请你司于后天在B港做好接货准备”

“通知”在国际贸易中的重要作用

在现代国际贸易中,很多商业决策需要以通知方式告知交易对方。以正确的方式通知交易对方,不仅体现了企业良好的商业信誉,更直接决定企业将要承担的法律责任。鉴于多国均为《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》的缔约国,本文以该公约为法律依据阐述各个话题。

一、 正确的通知

1. 形式:书面及口头均可,从证据角度看,书面更好的证明通知实际发生。

2. 内容:明确、清楚地表达通知的内容,列如:“从你司购买的设备被A公司提出侵犯其专利权”、“我司已于今日货交A物流公司,请你司于后天在B港做好接货准备”等。

3. 时间:绝大多数通知没有固定的通知期限,但一般均要求在“合理时间内”通知对方,如鲜活产品或季节性强货物则需几天内甚至几小时内通知,保质期较长货品相对期间比较长。如买方未在合理时间内通知对方,则可能导致丧失追索瑕疵产品、知产权利瑕疵产品的救济权利。

二、 何种情况必须发送通知

必须向对方发出通知才可享有后续权利的还有:买方向卖方发出货物于合同规定不符的通知,买方要求卖方损害赔偿、实际履约、减价要求,一方宣告合同无效等。

三、 通知是否到达的法律后果

1.“发送生效原则”,即一方发出通知就履行完毕通知义务,通知内容既已生效,对方是否收到通知在所不问。除非另有明示,公约中绝大多数通知发送即生效。

2.“到达生效原则”,即通知被对方收到才生效,如发送方已发送但因各种原因对方没有收到,则仍视为没有发送通知。只有少数通知采用此种生效方式,如47条2款“声称他将不在上述宽限期内履行义务的通知”和48条2、3、4款有关卖方表示在一特定时间内补充履行合同义务的通知和要求对方在一定时间内答复的通知等。

四、 律师作用

因国际贸易规则系结合当今大陆法系及普通法系而产生的,上海金沁律师事务所的陈红敏律师认为律师需要对贸易规则跨法系研究和实际操作,才可能提供正确的法律意见。在交易的各个环节中,是否需要发送通知、以何种形式及内容发送通知、何时发送通知,谁承担通知不利的法律后果及如何防范风险,需要专业国际律师提供法律意见,才能保证企业在国际贸易中的法律权益。

Significant role of notice in international trade

Most of commercial decisions should be notified to the other party in nowadays international trade. Giving the accurate notice not only represents the enterprise good commercial reputation, but also directly determines the legal liabilities burdened by enterprise. Due to many countries are member of CISG, the topics of this article are pursuant to this convention as legal basis.

一、 Accurate notice

1. Formality: in written or by oral are both allowed. Notice in written is a stronger evidence to prove it has been given from perspective of evidence.

2. Content: expresses the content of notice clearly and accurately, for example “equipments purchased from your company had been claimed for violation of the patent right by company A”, or,” we delivered the goods to transportation company A today, please prepare well to receive the goods at port B day after tomorrow” etc.

3. Time: there are no fixed periods for most of the notice, which is requested to be given in “reasonable time”. In circumstance of fresh products or seasonal goods, notice should be given in days or even in hours, of longer quality-guarantee period products, period would be longer. If buyer didn’t give notice to the seller in reasonable time, it would resort to the buyer be deprived of the right to rely on a lack of conformity of goods or IP right violation.

二、 The circumstances of notice must be given

Circumstances of notice must be given to the other party for one party being entitled to rely on rights according to convention are buyer gives notice to seller for lack of conformity of goods, buyer claims damages to seller or requires performance by seller or reduces the price, one party declares the contract void etc.

三、 Legal effect of notice arrival

1.“Principle of sending”, which means one party fulfills his performance of notice by giving or posting it and the notice becomes effective by then in law. Whether the other party receives the notice or not doesn’t impact the effectiveness of notice. Otherwise specifies in convention, most of notice apply the rule.

2.“Principle of arrival”, which means notice becomes effective when being received by the other party. Notice is void if it has been sent but doesn’t reach the other party by any reason. Only few notices are effective by this principle, such like article 47(2)”the seller will not perform within the period so fixed” and article 48(2)(3)(4)”A notice by the seller that he will perform within a specified period of time””the buyer does not comply with the request within a reasonable time” etc.

四、 Role of lawyer

Due to the rules of international trade are combined with common law system and civil law system, according to lawyer Chen of shanghai Kingtham lawyers, only lawyer with study of both law systems and practical work is able to provide correct legal opinions. In each phase of trade, whether to give notice or not, in which form or of what content of notice, at what time to give notice, whom will burden the obligation by failing to give notice and how to avoid risk, with legal opinions of lawyer expertise on international laws the legal rights of enterprise are guaranteed to be protected.

研究生学历,上海市浦东新区律师青年联合会第三届委员会委员,中级职称。十多年法律工作,资金过亿企业法律顾问,公司运作、劳动纠纷、合同、婚姻、房地产诉讼及非诉讼有丰富的经验;曾就职于检察院担任公诉人5年。(Sherry Chen, lawyer of shanghai kingtham lawyers is member of Chinese Bar Association and the third committee of the Pudong New Area Lawyers Association w

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